Contributed Paper C259
The Effects of Virtual Manipulatives on Statistics Achievement of Undergraduate Students
AuthorsXin Ma (United States)
Anushka Karkelanova (United States)
William Rayens (United States)
PresenterXin Ma (United States)
In this experiment (N = 94), one group of undergraduate students enrolled in introductory statistics used traditional concrete manipulatives for learning statistics, while the other group of undergraduate students enrolled in the same course used online virtual manipulatives for learning the same content. After one semester, undergraduate students were compared on their course average scores derived from midterm and final exams as well as homework and recitation. There were no significant differences between the two groups. Although course average scores significantly and positively predicted GPA among these undergraduate students (as a whole) one year later, there were no significant differences between the two groups in GPA. Concrete and virtual manipulatives as different instructional methods share similar short-term and long-term learning benefits.