10th International
Conference on
Teaching Statistics
8 – 13 July 2018
Kyoto, Japan
Contributed paper list

Contributed Paper C259

In session C7E  (Wednesday 11th, 9:30-10:30,   Level 3 - Conference Room D)

The Effects of Virtual Manipulatives on Statistics Achievement of Undergraduate Students


Xin Ma (University of Kentucky, United States)
Anushka Karkelanova (University of Kentucky, United States)
William Rayens (University of Kentucky, United States)


Xin Ma (United States)


In this experiment (N = 94), one group of undergraduate students enrolled in introductory statistics used traditional concrete manipulatives for learning statistics, while the other group of undergraduate students enrolled in the same course used online virtual manipulatives for learning the same content. After one semester, undergraduate students were compared on their course average scores derived from midterm and final exams as well as homework and recitation. There were no significant differences between the two groups. Although course average scores significantly and positively predicted GPA among these undergraduate students (as a whole) one year later, there were no significant differences between the two groups in GPA. Concrete and virtual manipulatives as different instructional methods share similar short-term and long-term learning benefits.

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